Daniel 8:9-14 and Related Scripture Interpreted.
Copyright Bruce Craig, Director of The Church Registry
"Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed." Dan. 8:14, KJV.
"After 2300 offerings; then shall the Holy One be Vindicated." Dan. 8:14, Bruce Craig Trans.
NOTE: As this is a condensed version of my study, no specific sources or authorities are cited.
However, sources include: John T. Anderson; John F. Walvoord; Desmond Ford; Jay P. Green, Sr.;
the Online Bible; e-Sword; A.R. Fausset; many Bible versions, commentaries, and dictionaries.
Study Maxims —
H6663 tsadaq Defined
It is said that prophecy may not be understood until after the facts prophesied have occurred. See Intelligible Only Upon Fulfillment section in the Study Maxims page. It is also often true that the first part of a matter may not be understood until the last part of the matter is examined. Consider the disciples of Christ; they did not understand what was to transpire with Him until He explained to them after His resurrection. Such is the case with Daniel 8:14. The student of Daniel will find a wide variety of interpretations ranging from critics who hold to the tradition that the prophecy was fulfilled during the reign of Antiochus Epiphenes or those who consider Daniel-the-book to be a fraud written circa 200 or those who claim the passage here was a prophecy of an event they believe occurred in Heaven in the year 1844. There are other intepretations, but those are the most prominent three.
The range of interpretations between these extremes is vast, and the traditions of Jew* to Catholic to Protestant as well as Agnostic are rampant throughout some or all interpretations. As I've studied this passage and related Scripture, I've found the original interpretation arrived at by the Maccabees circa 150 B.C., that Antiochus Epiphanes was the fulfillment of this prophecy, is still generally held by contemporary Bible versions and commentators. I have found only two or three scholars who even marginally question this tradition, typically as (paraphrased), "There must be more to this prophecy than Antiochus Epiphanes, but we don't know what it might be." In the minority are a few fringe cults** that believe in other interpretations including that the Papacy did or will fulfill the prophecy or that Christ went from the Holy Place the the Most Holy Place in the Heavenly Sanctuary in 1844.
My beliefs, from the results of my own study, assert that most interpretations are completely wrong, a few skirt the edges of correctness, but none have put the pieces together to reveal a wholesome view that conforms with Scripture to the elimination of tradition. Therefore, I begin at the end and proceed backward toward the beginning. Then, having interpreted Daniel 8:9-14, I continue by inspecting and interpreting related passages of Scripture.
*The Aramaic Peshitta (New Testament) word is correctly translated as Judean rather than Jew. The fact that the land was filled with non-Israelite Judeans who adopted the Israelite religion after the Diaspora is another study entirely. Note that even now, those who inhabit the nation of Israel reference themselves as Israelis, not Israelites. By reason of the word used in the original New Testament, I hereinafter use the term Judean in place of Jew.
**My definition of "cult" is any form of religion that claims to believe in Jesus Christ (whether by that name or any other form of His Name) yet "denies" Him by failing to follow His Word.
Daniel 8:14 — "Cleansed"
Traditionally, interpreters and commentators, have always presumed the precedent word "sanctuary" is referring to the temple building, so interpret the succeeding word as "cleansed." A few recent versions use terms such as, "will be made righteous," "will be restored," or "vindicated." Although "vindicated" is a much more correct interpretation than is "cleansed," as discussed following, the word encompasses a much greater expanse of what was accomplished by the "sanctuary."
The Hebrew word H6663, tsadaq, traditionally interpreted as cleansed, is better interpreted as vindicated or cleared oneself. This is proved by both the definition of the word generally and by its use in about 40 other verses in the Old Testament. Moreso, this is proved by its single occurance in the Niphal form, nisdaq, in this verse; see below. One of the best examples is found in Isaiah 53:11:
"He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous[H6662] servant justify[H6663] many; for he shall bear their iniquities." KJV
"When he sees all that is accomplished by his anguish, he will be satisfied. And because of what he has experienced, my righteous[H6662] servant will make it possible for many to be counted righteous[H6663], for he will bear all their sins." New Living Testament, emphasis added.
I consider the NLT to be the most accurate of the Bible translations I've inspected, especially when considered in the light of Romans 4:5, 9, 13; Galatians 3:7-9, 14; Hebrews 11. See also H6663 tsadaq Defined which defines the word in OT context. Note that H6662 describes an attribute of the servant—the servant is righteous—and H6663 descibes what the servant will do for—justify or be counted (as) righteous—the many.
There is more to the matter, as Richard Davidson states in The Meaning of Nisdaq in Daniel 8:14, Richard M. Davidson, Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, 7/1 (1996):107-119.:
“Daniel 8:14 reads, ‘Unto 2300 evening-mornings, then shall the sanctuary be nisdaq.’ ... Several translations read ‘shall be vindicated,’ others, ‘shall be justified’ or ‘its cause vindicated,’ or the related ‘emerge victorious.’”
Davidson goes on to state:
“Then we will focus upon the Hebrew Bible’s single occurrence of the Niphal form of this verb, namely nisdaq in Daniel 8:14, with particular attention to its immediate context in vs. 13 where the three problem situations which call forth the activity announced in vs. 14. The thesis which this study tests is that the word nisdaq in Daniel 8:14 was deliberately selected because it has a broad enough semantic range to encompass the specific solutions to each of the problems expressed in vs. 13.”
He has well expressed the core of the matter, “... because it has a broad enough semantic range to encompass” what Christ our Sanctuary accomplished at the cross. He says further:
“I suggest that the word nisdaq is uniquely suited in its breadth of semantic range to encapsulate the solution to all three of the sanctuary-related situations summarized in vs. 13. ... its three major extended meanings—restore, cleanse, and vindicate—specifically match the three problems of vs. 13 ...”
And what are those three problems according to Davidson? The continual, the abomination, and the desolation:
“First ... ‘the continual’ ... needs to be made right in the sense of restored to its rightful place ... Second ... ‘the transgression causing horror’ ... needs to be made right in the sense of purified or cleansed ... Third, the God who has been defamed ... must be made right in the sense of vindication.”
Each of these “problems” was addressed—and solved—by Christ during His ministry on earth—His life, death, and resurrection.
The Continual — The continual pointed to the Messiah's Sacrifice on our behalf. In fact, the idea of the "sacrifice" of the Messiah, the Son of God, is much more broad than just His death on the Cross. Verse 11 references that the Messiah left Heaven: "Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down." Himself and sacrifice are added words. Note that "the prince of the host" is the precedent object of "by him" and "his sanctuary" just as the precedent object in verse 9 is "wind" and not "horn" as tradition holds. Sacrifice is implicit to daily and the daily references the sacrifice which foretold, twice a day, the Messiah's finishing sacrifice. When the Son of God left Heaven to become one of us, that is to take on the form of mankind, it was done at the sacrifice of His position in Heaven. Verse 11 is telling us that "the daily" — "the sacrifice" — the Son of God, was taken away from the place of His sanctuary and "cast down" to earth to become one of us. Who caused that to happen? Luficer/Satan/the Serpent, the enemy of the Godhead. By His life, death, and resurrection, Christ overcame being "cast down" and restored "the continual," Himself, to His rightful place in Heaven.
The Transgression Causing Horror — The transgression causing horror was Satan's war on the Messiah during His ministry. This was addressed and solved because Satan was defeated by the Messiah.
The God Who Has Been Defamed — The Godhead was defamed by Lucifer/Satan. The Messiah became the Second Adam to redeem that which the First Adam had lost. The Messiah vindicated the Godhead in the broad scope of the word nisdaq.
Thus, the word tsadaq, and conclusively in the form nisdaq in verse 14, is a verb that denotes an action which may only be accomplished by or on behalf of a living being and cannot be accomplished by or on behalf of a building such as the physical temple. It is worth repeating: it is a verb denoting action which may only be accomplished by a living being.
That which follows will expand the understanding of the foregoing.
Daniel 8:14 — "Sanctuary"
It follows, from the meaning of tsadaq/nisdaq, and that the action implicit in the verb may only be accomplished by a living being, the precedent word sanctuary in verse 14 must necessarily make reference to a living being. Further, the definition of that Hebrew word, H6944, qo'desh, includes a holy being, a saint, a holy place.
As the context of verses 13 and 14 are the sanctuary and its symbolism pointing to the Messiah to come, the living sanctuary of verse 14 can only be the Messiah and none other. The Messiah alone could fulfill, that is, finish, His Father’s work on this earth. He alone could fulfill the ultimate sacrifice anticipated by the "daily" sacrifices. That work was to prove God’s Law was not unjust as Satan had charged. Christ undertook to live a life in conformity to those laws founded in God’s Universal Kingdom. Christ was found to be without sin; He alone of mankind was able to keep those immutable laws. Yet He died the second death required for the penalty of sin. (We preach Christ crucified, Christ’s Second-death Study, Vincent George Yesudas, private paper.) Christ alone, as our sanctuary—the Holy One, the Saint—vindicated Himself and His Father from the charges laid against them by Satan. “... then shall the Holy One be Vindicated.”
John the Revelator records what the Spirit on the Lord's Day revealed to him:
"And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it." Rev 21:22.
If the Godhead is the “temple” of the New Jerusalem, it follows that they are also the “temple” or “sanctuary” in Heaven.
Our Messiah is the final and true witness about the matter:
“And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem, And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting: And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables; And said unto them that sold doves, ‘Take these things hence; make not my Father's house an house of merchandise.’ And his disciples remembered that it was written, ‘The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.’ Then answered the Jews and said unto him, ‘What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things?’ Jesus answered and said unto them, ‘Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.’ Then said the Jews, ‘Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?’ But he spake of the temple of his body. When therefore he was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them; and they believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said." John 2:13-22. (Emphasis added)
It follows that, since the Messiah Himself said He was the temple, and as the context of Daniel 8:13,14 is explicitly the sanctuary/temple and its services, therefore the Hebrew H6922, qo'desh, in general, means the Godhead and narrowly, means the Messiah. The disciples believed Him.
Daniel 9:23-27 — These verses are relevant to this discussion because they also reference the Messiah and parallel some of the same events recorded in Daniel 8:13,14.
"At the beginning of thy supplications the commandment came forth, and I am come to shew thee; for thou art greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision. Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy. Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate." Daniel 9:23-27.
Weeks is H7620, "literally sevened, that is, a week (specifically of years): - seven, week." Strong's.
Cut off is H3772, "to cut, cut off, cut down, cut off a body part, cut out, eliminate, kill, cut a covenant." BDB. "The Hebrew for 'cut off' means in several places an official death decree. ... It is the same Hebrew as in Isaiah 53:8, where the Messiah's death is expressly said to take place because of the transgression of Israel." Desmond Ford, In the Heart of Daniel, p72.
City is H5892, first definition is "excitement, anguish, [place of] terror"; second definition is "city, town (a place of waking, guarded). BDB.
Flood is H7858, "From H7857; a deluge (literally or figuratively): - flood, outrageous, overflowing." Strong's.
Sacrifice is H2077, "sacrifice, sacrifices of righteousness, sacrifices of strife, sacrifices to dead things, the covenant sacrifice, the passover, annual sacrifice." BDB.
Oblations is H4503, "gift, tribute, offering, present, oblation, sacrifice, meat offering, gift, offering (to God), grain offering." BDB.
Determined is H2782, and includes "decree."
This passage is clear that, from the going forth of the decree to restore Jerusalem to the Messiah will be 7+60+2 "sevened," literally 69 "sevened" of years. As the passage progresses, note the vivid descriptions of what would transpire against the Messiah as well as the parallel terms and phrases here and in Daniel 8:13-14.
The Messiah will be cut off; cut off is a term used to denote "put to death."
But not for himself; He was righteous so did not need to die for himself, but rather died for the many (all mankind).
The people of the prince, the Messiah, were the Judeans—prince continues the context of Messiah the Prince—; they would destroy the guarded place and the sanctuary.*
The end would be by a flood; the word encompasses the concept of something "outrageous." The acts taken against the Messiah by the Judeans were certainly outrageous.
Unto the end of the war; in context, a concept parallel to "abomination" in Daniel 8:13—Satan made war on the Messiah via the people of the prince. The "end of the war" is Satan defeated at the cross. Satan could no longer make war on the Messiah.
Desolations are determined; the reference is parallel to "desolation" in Daniel 8:13—the Messiah was left desolate at the cross.
The Messiah will confirm the covenant with many for one "sevened" of years, and in the midst of that "sevened"—note that this parallels "time, times, dividing of time"—the Messiah would cause the sacrificial system that pointed to Him to cease as fulfilled.
The last part of verse 27 describes that the Messiah would make the enemy, Satan, to be desolate and will eventually have the "decree" of "desolation" carried out against him.
*The context suggests to me the translation, "The people of the Messiah that will come will destroy the guarded place and the sanctuary." From the context and meanings of the word H5892, I ponder if "guarded place" could mean either "guardian of the sanctuary" or be a synonymous term as in "the Messiah is the guarded one" and "Sanctuary" is the Messiah just as "Sanctuary" in Daniel 8:14 is the Messiah. Currently, the meaning of "guarded one" is obscure to me.
Daniel 8:14 — "2300 evening morning"
This phrase is considered by many expositors to be "difficult" and there are nearly as many interpretations as there are expositors. Generally, however, Judeans and Christian conservatives—but also many others—interpret this phrase to mean a reference to Antiochus Epiphanes and the length of days he caused the sanctuary in Jerusalem to be desecrated with heathen rituals and worship. Other denominations, principally Seventh-day Adventist, but not limited to, apply the year-day principle to extend the application of this phrase to a variety of dates within the 18th-20th centuries, but otherwise there is little agreement among commentators on the dates.
Expositors generally reference to the phrase in the creation story of Genesis Ch. 1, and was evening and was morning, a day, to insert and into the literal 2300 evening morning in verse 14. However, the phrases are not the same. The creation story is explicit to citing the evening and morning as a day composed of both parts. In contrast, as shown above, the context of verses 13-14 is the sanctuary as it symbolizes the Messiah; it follows that evening morning is explicit to the sacrificial services that occurred twice daily. The commonly used Hebrew terms for the sacrificial services are literally daily or continual and are specific to those services in the OT. Therefore, the 2300 can only represent 2300 sacrificial services that occurred during 1150 days. This is not a new interpretation as a few expositors have stated such. However, expositors have always questioned that interpretation for failure to find a literal application of the 1150 days.
It is well to keep in mind the maxim of context: “A text without a context is a pretext for a proof text.” The context of Daniel 8:13-14 is the continual, the daily, the sanctuary, and not the creation day. To interpret “evening morning,” a phrase specific to the sacrificial system, in the context of the creation story, which uses a completely different phrase, is, at best, a pretext.
This quote excerpted from Daniel, the Key to Prophetic Revelation, by John Walvoord is typical:
"If they are literally twenty-three hundred days, what is the fulfillment? The attempts to relate this to the last seven years of the Gentile period referred to in Daniel 9:27 have confused rather than helped the interpretation. Twenty-three hundred days is less than seven years of 360 days, and the half figure of eleven hundred and fifty days is short of the three and one-half years of the great tribulation. Exegetically, a safe course to follow is to find fulfillment in Antiochus Epiphanes, and then to proceed to consider what eschatological or unfilled prophecy may be involved. ... ¶ "Taking all evidence into consideration, the best conclusion is that the twenty-three hundred days of Daniel are fulfilled in the period from 171 B.C. and culminated in the death of Antiochus Epiphanes in 164 B.C. ... Although the evidence available today does not offer fulfillment to the precise day, the twenty-three hundred days, obviously a round number, is relatively accurate in defining the period ... ¶ "The alternate theories produce more problems than they solve. Considering the days as year-days has provided no fulfillment. Using the figure of eleven hundred and fifty days only creates more problems as it does not fit precisely any scheme of events and has a dubious basis. ... This prophecy may safely be said now to have been fulfilled [in Antiochus Epiphanes] and does not have any further eschatological significance in the sense of anticipating a future fulfillment."
In contrast to those who precede me, Wolvoord included, I find the literal application of the 1150 days to be the time commencing with Satan's temptation of Christ after His 40-days of fasting in the desert and ending with His crucifixion. Add 40 days from baptism to temptation and the 40 days He remained with His disciples after His resurrection: thus 1150+80=1230 days. The Hebrew translated dividing of time means divided, not half, thus 1260 days is a presumed translation of time, times, and a dividing of time. 1230 days fits time, times, and a dividing of time just as accurately as does 1260 days. The foregoing accounting of days does not include the three days Christ was in the tomb. That having been said, I don't claim my conclusion is an exact accounting, for the importance of Christ's ministry, death, and resurrection superceeds any attempts to find the exactness of days.
Daniel 8:13 — "The Daily"
H8548, in the context of this passage (vss. 9-14) is specific to the sacrifices accomplished twice daily. Over 20 times in the KJV it is translated "continual" and seven times translated as "daily," in every instance directly referencing the twice-a-day sacrifices. It is a word that binds the “2300 evening morning” phrase in vs. 14 to apply to the sacrificial services.
Davidson’s suggests that “the continual” needs to be made right in the sense of being restored to its rightful place. I have referenced that to some extent above. Further, his suggestion is correct when that restoration is seen as the Messiah, who having defeated Satan, was restored to His rightful place in the Melchizedek priesthood. In his commentary on Daniel 9:25b, referencing the term annointed one (NIV) or Messiah (KJV), Desmond Ford states:
"More important is the fact that we are here promised another Melchizedek—a priest king. Such did not apply to any other 'messiahs' in Scipture. And the fact that Messiah precedes Prince gives further emphasis to the priority of his priestly work. ... Isaiah 55:4 applies the same words to the promised Messiah. See Psalm 110:4 and Zechariah 6:13 for a very specific statement that the coming Deliverer would be like Melchizedek, a priest and a king at the same time. Only one person in history fits the requirements of this inspired phrase, and that person is Jesus of Nazereth." In the Heart of Daniel, p68.
The Melchizedek priesthood as fulfilled in the Messiah is wonderfully shown in the study Garments of the Priesthood and Our Great High Priest, Patterns for Revival DVDs 1 and 2, Dick Reuben, Dick Reuben Evangelistic Association. Reuben shows that the Aaronic priesthood was passed to Christ at His baptism by John the Baptist who was the legitimate High Priest, Herod having appointed the usurper, Caiaphas. The Aaronic Priesthood was terminated at Christ's crucifixtion—and it was no coincidence the soldiers had written over His head, "This is Jesus, the King of the Judeans." Matthew 27:37. By reason of His resurrection, He was seated as both our King and Great High Priest—the Melchizedek priesthood—continually and forever, at the right hand of His Father.
Daniel 8:13 — "Abomination"
The word in Hebrew includes the concept of rebellion and to make war. Satan commenced his war against Christ by attempting to have Herod murder Him when He was yet a babe. Despite that initial attempt, Satan's overt attempts commenced when he tempted Christ in the desert and there is every indication he never let up until he presumed to have been victorious when he induced the Judeans and the Romans to murder Christ at the cross. But, as is known by all who believe the Bible record, Satan's victory was short lived as evidenced by Christ's resurrection.
Davidson terms this as “the transgression causing horror” that “needs to be made right in the sense of purified or cleansed ...” Satan transgressed when he rebelled against God; Satan is the abomination, the transgression causing horror, the one who made war on Christ. No purification or cleansing is available to Satan. Any sense of purification is found in Christ's defeat of Satan that will eventually cleanse the universe of sin and rebellion generally and of Satan and his minions specifically.
Daniel 8:13 — "Desolation"
In order for Christ to complete His sacrifice wherein His blood paid for the sins of mankind, once for all, He had to die the death of a sinner, that is, the Second Death. A minister I once heard stated in a sermon that hell was, in every aspect, when God abandoned a person because of their unbelief and unremitting sin. So too, Christ was abandoned at the cross when He cried out: "Father, why have you forsaken me?" Satan caused God to leave His only begotten Son desolate at the cross. Satan's war—the abomination—left Christ abandoned—the desolation of the Sanctuary—on the cross.
Isaiah 14:12:15 — "Lucifer"
Ezekiel 28:12-19 — "King of Tyrus"
Daniel 8:9-12 — "Little Horn"
Revelation 12:1-11 — "Great Red Dragon"
It is necessary to keep in mind the scriptural maxim that a thing shall be established by the word of two or three witnesses. It applies to doctrine as well as to a charge against a person. It is well settled that Bible prophecy is symbolic. It cannot be disputed that there are parallel prophecies in Daniel such as the image in Daniel Ch. 2 and the beasts of Ch. 7. Also parallel are verses 8:14 and 9:26; both refer to Christ's fulfillment of the sanctuary parable. Further, compare the words in Daniel 10:13, “But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days... “ with the record of Daniel 8:3-8. In Daniel 10:13, who is the prince of the kingdom of Persia who withstood the angel messenger? Clearly that prince cannot be an earthly king; only Satan would dare stand in the way the messenger sent to Daniel. The Scripture passages cited have numerous parallels, and, when those in Ezekiel and Daniel are compared to those in Isaiah and Revelation which are undisputed prophetic references to Satan, it becomes clear that the king of Tyrus in Ezekiel and the little horn of Daniel 8 are symbolic of Satan.
Without being exhaustive of the parallels—the reader is urged to study for themself—there are symbols applicable only to Satan and not to any earthly person. Was the king of Tyrus ever in Eden? The answer is clear because Satan was the serpent in the garden who induced the downfall of Adam. Has any earthly being caused the fall of a third of the angels? Only Satan has done so.
Consider these parallels in Isaiah 14 and Daniel 8; the parallels in Ezekiel and Revelation are not listed, but these are four specific witnesses of parallels in prophecy that confirm the little horn of Daniel 8 is Satan and not otherwise. Matthew 18:16 advises, "But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established." These prophetic witnesses have testified to what Satan attempted to accomplish in his war against God and the Messiah, and that the Messiah would emerge victorious.
A. Stars Fallen
i. [Isa 14:12] O shining star, ... how you have fallen from the heavens.
ii. [Dan 8:10] And it made fall some of the host, and of the stars ...
B. To the Ground
i. [Isa 14:12] ... you are cut down to the ground.
ii. [Dan 8:10] ... [stars] to the ground and trampled them.
C. Like the Most High
i. [Isa 14:13] For you have said in your heart, I will go up to the heavens; I will raise
my throne above the stars of God ...
ii. [Isa 14:14] I will rise over the heights of the clouds; I will be compared to the Most High.
iii. [Dan 8:25] ... he will lift himself up in his heart, ... He shall also stand up against
the Ruler of rulers ...
D. In the North; to the South, East, and the Bountiful
i. [Isa 14:13] , and I will sit in the mount of meeting, in the sides of the north.
ii. [Dan 8:9] And out of one of them came a little horn, which became very great,
toward the south, and toward the east,
and toward the bountiful ...
E. Into the Pit/Broken
i. [Isa 14:15] Yet you shall be brought out to Sheol, to the sides of the Pit.
ii. [Dan 8:25] he shall be broken without a hand.
Isaiah 14:13 — "Sides of the North"
The Hebrew word in this verse translated as sides is the feminine form of the Hebrew word for testament. No valid testament or contract could be made by laying one's hand on the thigh of a female; thus this word in the phrase is symbolic of an invalid or evil contract, that is, a contract to do evil. The Hebrew word properly translated as north when in a passage indicating a literal direction is also, in context of prophecy, nearly always used to indicate an association with evil whether going toward or emanating from an evil place or person. Scripture "holds no punches" when referencing the evil character of Satan and that he obtains the cooperation—the contracts with evil—of men to do his bidding. As Revelation equates an evil woman with the false church, and the Dragon is behind this evil woman, we see this parallel also in the sides-of-the-north contract as being the false church which attacks Christ and His true Church, His bride in white.
Daniel 8:9 — "Out of one of them"
Most Bible versions and expositors view them in this passage to be one of the four horns of the Greek empire. However, other expositors reference the antecedent phrase toward the four winds of heaven in verse 8 as the source of the little horn that emerges in verse 9; that is, it emerges from one of the four winds. When viewed in context of the following phrase in verse 9 toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant,—pleasant usually considered to be toward the west in direction—the remaining direction from which the little horn may emerge is north. As shown above, the context of verses 9-14 is Satan's abomination of evil when he makes war on Christ. For this little horn to emerge from the prophetic symbol of north as a place where the contract with evil exists, applying this verse to Satan coming with his evil intent "toward" the other winds of heaven is, in my belief, the most logical interpretation of this verse.
Daniel 8:9 — "Toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant"
Toward — The Hebrew word translated as toward includes both negative and positive aspects. It can represent an action to promote or to attack. Satan promotes his evil agendas, and he attacks those who resist him. In particular, he promotes false religions and he attacked Christ during His ministry as well as those who, throughout the ages, have looked to the Messiah. The words south and east are symbols of false doctrines Satan promotes. The word pleasant symbolizes his attack on Christ. The following expands upon these symbolisms.
South — The Hebrew word translated as south more literally means Egypt. In most OT scripture, the literal direction is obvious from the context. In this verse, the context is that of a prophecy and the word is a symbol referencing Egypt and not the literal direction. In scripture, Egypt represented slavery, idolatry, belief in the eternal life of the soul, and pantheism along with sun worship; God called Israel out of these heathen beliefs. Satan promotes these aspects of religion in opposition to God's truths. The Judeans at the time of Christ were already steeped in these beliefs.
Contemporary documentation of the apostasy of the Judeans as well as other religions is widely available in, among other publications, Codex Magica by Texe Marrs wherein he cites the influence of a number of cults opposed to Christ and His church. Among those cited are the Masons and their Satanic rituals. Relevant to Masonic infiltration of various religions is referenced in the book In God’s Name by David Yallop where he cites that Catholic Canon banned any member of that church from being a member of a Masonic Temple. Yet, many Catholic Cardinals, Bishops, and Priests at the time of Pope John Paul I were secretly members of Masonic Temples, and it was anticipated that he would weed them from the church.
Significantly, Yallop records that Pope John Paul II rescinded that Canon and Catholics who were Masonics were thereafter accommodated. Pertinent to our subject, that the Catholic Church is the anti-Christ, that a number of religious traditions have been developed around Rome as first a civil power than as a religious power, and various time-lines of its history have been asserted to fit into prophetic time-lines, I suggest a fairly recent book records historical events that contradict any simplistic approach to Catholicism viz a viz any prophetic interpretation. Trying to establish, for example, that 1798 is relevant to Catholicism and Scriptural prophecy requires ignoring all other instances of similar Papal occurrences in favor of one that supports the theory. As one acquaintance said when referring the book to me, “Those who attempt to fit Catholic history into prophetic time-lines are giving the Catholic church credit it does not deserve.” The publication, Absolute Monarchy, a History of the Papacy, John Julius Norwich, is readily available in either book form or for digital readers. This is not to say apostacy is not found in the religion of Rome or in many other religions that profess Christianity.
East — The Hebrew word translated as east more literally means where the sun comes up. I need not reiterate the obvious literal application in the OT as stated above about south. In prophecy, east represents veneration of the sun, that is, sun worship and Sun-day which is the day sacred to that idolatry. Note that three witnesses in the New Testament record that Christ said He was Lord also of the Sabbath. This established fact of scripture flies in the face of those who attempt to claim John the Revelator was in the spirit on the Lord's day to prove "Sunday is the Lord's day." The Sabbath is not only a memorial of God's power to create, it is also His reminder that His people are to remember the Sabbath because he brought Israel out of Egypt. Among other symbols, Egypt was a symbol of Israel in slavery. Spiritual Israel is in slavery to sin. Absent the power to create man, God has no power to redeem and salvage fallen man. Thus the seventh-day Sabbath is more than just a remembrance of God as creator, it also encompasses His power to save us—you and me—from the slavery of sin and to salvage our ruins. The Sabbath represents that His people are to remember His power to redeem, salvage, and recreate us in His image! From that remembrance comes His power to give us peace beyond understanding. The prophet Isaiah records thus for us to remember: "For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain before me, saith the LORD, so shall your seed and your name remain. And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the LORD." Isa 66:22,23.
Pleasant — The Hebrew word translated as pleasant or beautiful is literally hart but can also mean an attractive place or person; in most OT scripture this word is generally not in the context of prophecy and is most often accompanied by a qualifying noun such as land, that is, pleasant land. When the noun is present, pleasant becomes and adjective descriptive of the noun, land. However, in this verse no noun is present, so any noun in translations is supplied because no translator appears to have questioned the tradition that this word is referencing Palestine or Jerusalem or—some expositors—the temple. In the context of this passage, and that sanctuary in verse 14 means Christ the living sanctuary, it follows that pleasant, as that word stands alone, is a noun referencing Christ as the one who is pleasant and beautiful to God and man. That is, toward the pleasant references Satan's attack on Christ.
Daniel 7:10 — "Judgment was Set"
Now we turn to examine another tradition, never questioned that I can find. That tradition is that a judgment—a court session—is commenced in the prophecy set out in Daniel 7:10. I dispute that tradition and, rather, assert the passage is correctly interpreted to mean that the judgment of mankind is settled, that is, completed, and that the books to be opened are the Books of Life which record the names of the righteous to be given to the assembled host who will accompany Christ at his Second Advent to “catch up into the air” the resurrected and living righteous.
I have found no expositor that translates this phrase as other than that God commences a judgment session nor have I found any that apply an understanding of court procedures to this passage. I shall parse the phrase and apply the order of court procedures to determine the meaning of this phrase. First, note the order of the words in another passage:
"And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses sat to judge the people: and the people stood by Moses from the morning unto the evening. Exodus 18:13, KJV. (Emphasis added).
Now note the order of words in Daniel:
"... the judgment was set ..." Emphasis added.
In Exodus, Moses first sat then judged; he sat in judgment. In contrast, in Daniel God has first gathered together a vast host of angels because the judgment was set—was is past tense—; that is, it was settled. The Hebrew word translated as set means to dwell as in to be settled or to stay put. To reiterate, note that was is past tense, that is, the judgment was accomplished, finished, settled. The judgment was not commenced, rather it was completed.
When is the judgment settled? After God issues the decree:
"He that is unjust, let him be unjust still: and he which is filthy, let him be filthy still: and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still: and he that is holy, let him be holy still." Revelation 22:11.
Next we consider court procedure to help analyze the next phrase in the verse.
Daniel 7:10 — "And the books were opened"
Traditional commentary interprets this phrase to mean that God inspects these books for evidence of the deeds of persons as He judges "the quick [living] and the dead." This tradition is, of course, dependent upon judgment was set being interpreted, per tradition, that God commences a judgment. As noted in the analysis of the foregoing phrase, the judgment was settled, finished, so it follows there would be no point to inspect these books for evidence to judge any person. Therefore, in the context of a finished judgment and God having issued the decree recorded in Revelation 22:11, and in consideration of the vast host of angels called before God's throne, the only obvious remaining interpretation possible is that these are the books containing the names of those who are to be raised from their sleep in Christ along with those living who are decreed to be righteous. These are the names of those to be given to the attending angels who will come with Christ at His Second Advent; they are the names of those who will be resurrected and those who are living who will be caught up by the angels into the air to be with Christ for eternity!
Those who have endured court proceedings with their eyes open recognize there is an order to that which occurs. These proceedings are regulated by Court Rules promulgated either by the courts themselves or by legislative enactments. In short, a court case minimally consists of the following as shown in the flow chart, at left, published by an attorney firm. I have used a criminal-case flow chart for the reason the complaint brought by Satan against God was, in essence, accusing God of crimes against His beings. Note the box which is titled "Discovery." This phase of a court proceeding is where evidence is gathered to present if a trial does occur. This evidence has to be gathered before a trial may commence. No judgment may be entered until after the evidence is presented at trial followed by verdict. In fact, the order of things is (a) verdict, (b) judgment entered in accord with the verdict, (c) decree or order entered to carry out the judgment. Thus we see that a judge references the judgment entered—the recording in the book of judgment—to enter an order or decree to finish up the case. Absent a judgment, there is no ability to enter an order or decree. No order or decree can issue without the judgment entered into the books. When the judgment is settled, God opens the Books of Life to give the names of the redeemed to Christ and the angels then decrees the consummation of the Second Advent.
"If I justify myself, mine own mouth shall condemn me: if I say, I am perfect, it shall also prove me perverse." Job 9:20.
"For as he thinketh in his heart, so is he." Proverbs 23:7.
Christ looks on the heart of each person and, based on their decisions, either does or does not enter their name into the Books of Life. Contrary to traditional belief, the "judgment" is not a court proceeding to review the acts of any person, but rather the "judgment" is to carry out God's final decree and order set out in Revelation 22:11. Those whose hearts are against God will ultimately receive the second death. Those whose hearts are right with God will receive eternal life. When a person dies, their judgment is settled. For those who are living at the time of God's decree, their judgment is settled when the decree is issued. Every person is their own judge.
Hebrews 7:29 LP — "... he did this once for all when he offered up himself."
Scripture is clear that, when a person places their faith in Christ, Christ accepts them as a member of his Church—His bride—and God accepts Christ's claim of ownership; the person's sins are never seen for they are covered by Christ's sinless life and His atonement. Christ said He was to finish [God's] work; John 4:34 and 5:36. He further said He had finished that work; John 17:4. John witnesses to Christ's words:
"It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost." John 19:30.
Some denominations hold to the doctrine that Christ did not finish His work at the cross. Are we to take Christ at His own words as cited by four references in scripture? Are we to accept the harmony of prophecy found in Isaiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, and Revelation, that Christ Our Sanctuary—the Holy One—was Vindicated at the Cross? Or are we to accept those authors who state, "His work was not finished at the cross"? To deny the words of Christ, the true witness, is to deny Christ. Such is the stuff of cults.
Conclusion of the Matter — "Christ Our Sanctuary—the Holy One—is Vindicated"
Paul is clearly referencing Christ as the living temple in this passage:
"But The Messiah who has come has become The High Priest of the good things that he did, and he entered The Great and Perfect Tabernacle which is not made with hands, and was not from these created things. And he did not enter with blood of yearling goats and of calves, but with his own blood he entered the holy place one time and has achieved eternal redemption." Heb. 9:11-12, The Original Aramaic NT in Plain English, Bauscher.
Jesus clearly referenced that He was the living temple:
"Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up." John 2:19, LP, RSV.
It is no less clear that in Daniel 8:14 the sanctuary is the living Messiah, Jesus Christ, who vindicated Himself and His Father during His life, and His vindication was sealed at the cross. The consummation of Christ's vindication and victory at the cross will be at His Second Advent.
The Messiah is the true witness that Daniel and the other prophets spoke of Him:
And, behold, two of them went that same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs. And they talked together of all these things which had happened. And it came to pass, that, while they communed together and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them. But their eyes were holden that they should not know him. And he said unto them, 'What manner of communications are these that ye have one to another, as ye walk, and are sad?' And the one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answering said unto him, 'Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days?' And he said unto them, 'What things?' And they said unto him, 'Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people: And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him. But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done. Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre; And when they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive. And certain of them which were with us went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not.' Then he said unto them, 'O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken: Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?' And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself. And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they went: and he made as though he would have gone further. But they constrained him, saying, 'Abide with us: for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent.' And he went in to tarry with them. And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them. And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight. And they said one to another, 'Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the scriptures?'" Luke 24:13-32.
Moses and all the prophets and ... all the scriptures were, of course, what we now reference as the Old Testament.
It is the opinion of this writer that it is time for Christian believers to put the myths, among others, of Antiochus Epiphenes and 1844 and the Sanctuary Doctrine, for too long accepted as fulfillments of this prophecy, behind them and accept the wonderful truth that the Messiah, by reason of His ministry and death over the span of 2300 continuals/dailys/evening and morning sacrifices, is the living Temple and thus the only fulfillment of this prophetic revelation given to Daniel some 600 years earlier. He told of Himself to the disciples on the road to Emmaus. In those same Scriptures that we know as the Old Testament, along with the Scriptures we know as the New Testament, we are told of Him and what He did for us. Will we open our eyes to know Him?! Will our hearts burn within us?!
"Even so come, Lord Jesus." Rev. 22:20.
Study Maxims —
H6663 tsadaq Defined
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